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The Kural

Part Four

part one | part two | part three | part four

Verse 781 What is as difficult to secure as friendship? And what greater security is there against foes?

Verse 782 Among wise men, friendship waxes like the crescent moon; Among fools it wanes as surely as the full moon must.

Verse 783 The bonds that good men share, like good bound books, Reveal new enjoyments at each new encounter.

Verse 784 The object of friendship is not merrymaking But a stern rebuking when friends go astray.

Verse 785 It is not constant meeting and companionship But mutual sensibilities that confer the alliance of friendship.

Verse 786 Friendship is not seen on a friendly face, But felt deep within a friendly heart.

Verse 787 To divert a man from wrong, direct him toward the right And share his sorrow in misfortune is friendship.

Verse 788 As swiftly as the hand moves to seize a slipping garment, Friendship acts to assuage a friend's distress.

Verse 789 Where does Friendship hold her court? It is where friends May find constant support in every possible circumstance.

Verse 790 To boast, "He means so much to me and I to him," Merely belittles a friendship. Testing Fitness for Friendship

Verse 791 There is no greater harm than forming a friendship without first Testing, for once formed, it cannot be abandoned by the faithful.

Verse 792 Unless it begins with testing and proving, Friendship may end in mortal sorrow.

Verse 793 Consider a man's character, family background, faults And loyal associates and then befriend him.

Verse 794 Pay any price to possess the friendship Of well-born men who cannot bear
rebuke and blame.

Verse 795 Seek out and befriend those who speak and move you to repent, Reprove your wrong-doing and friendships, Even when those they cherish happen to do them harm.

Verse 808 A strong, close friend will not listen to a friends' faults, And on the day a friend offends, he celebrates his silence.

Verse 809 The world will cherish those faithful men Who never forsake old, unbroken friendships.

Verse 810 Even ill-wishers will wish them well Who never abandon affection for old friends.

Harmful Friendship

Verse 811 Though unscrupulous men will seem to consume you in friendship, Their companionship grows more delightful as it declines.

Verse 812 What does it matter if one gains or loses the friendship Of manipulators who gainfully befriend and otherwise forsake?

Verse 813 Prostitutes, thieves and those who make friends To make money are all alike.

Verse 814 Loneliness is far better than friendship with men who are like The untrained horse which throws its rider on the battlefield.

Verse 815 Far better to forfeit than to obtain the friendship Of inferior men who stay away when they should stay and help.

Verse 816 The enmity of the wise is ten million times Better than the intimate friendship of fools.

Verse 817 An enemy's enmity is 100 million times more worthwhile Than the company of companions who always clown around.

Verse 818 If friends feign inability to perform possible tasks, Remain silent and gradually give up their friendship.

Verse 819 The fellowship of men whose acts Belie their spoken words is bitter, even in dreams.

Verse 820 There are men who will cherish you at home but censure you In public-avoid their every befriending approach.

False Friendship

Verse 821 The friendship of those who feign affection is an anvil On which to hammer you when the opportunity arises.

Verse 822 The friendship of those who act like friends but are not, Will fluctuate like the mind of a fickle woman.

Verse 823 Though their scholarship is good and abundant, Ignoble men rarely learn goodness of heart.

Verse 824 Fear the cunning friend who smiles sweetly to your face But conceals wickedness in his heart.

Verse 825 Distrust whatever words may come from Men whose hearts are not in harmony with your own.

Verse 826 While sounding like a good friend's words, A rival's words are readily revealed.

Verse 827 Do not trust an enemy though he bends low in his speech, For the bending of the bow forebodes nothing but harm.

Verse 828 Folded in respect, a foe's hands may hide a dagger. So too, his tears dare not be trusted.

Verse 829 Men may amply aid you, yet hate you in their heart; Make them laugh, but let feigned friendship die.

Verse 830 When the time comes that foes pose as friends, Keep a friendly face but banish their brotherhood from your heart.


Verse 831 What is folly? It is holding on to that which is harmful And throwing away that which is beneficial.

Verse 832 The folly of all follies is to enjoy doing What one is forbidden to do.

Verse 833 To be shameless, un-inquisitive, loveless and uncaring Are the fool's four failings.

Verse 834 No fool is more foolish than one who eagerly expounds His learning to others while failing to follow it himself.

Verse 835 In a single birth a fool may earn by his efforts A mire of hellish suffering in the subsequent seven.

Verse 836 If a fool who knows not how to act undertakes an enterprise He will not only fail, he will shackle himself in chains.

Verse 837 When a fool falls upon a great fortune, Strangers will feast while his family starves.

Verse 838 If a fool happens to acquire something of value, He will act like a madman who is intoxicated.

Verse 839 Friendship among fools is profoundly sweet, For at their parting there is not the slightest pain

Verse 840 A fool stepping into a saintly council Is like entering a clean bed with filthy feet.


Verse 841 Dearth of wisdom is dire destitution. Other forms of poverty the world deems less impoverishing.

Verse 842 All merit for a gift given gladly by an ignoramus Is nothing but the goodness gained by the recipient's past penance.

Verse 843 The suffering that ignorant men inflict upon themselves Can hardly be caused even by their enemies.

Verse 844 What is stupidity? It is that vanity Which dares to declare, "I am wise."

Verse 845 He who pretends to knowledge that he does not possess Raises doubts as to those things that he really knows.

Verse 846 Fools follow a wayward path, clothing a well-formed, naked body But failing to conceal their deformed mind.

Verse 847 The ignorant man who neglects valuable advice Will cause himself his own great misery.

Verse 848 Neither following another's orders nor fathoming himself what to do- Such a creature causes only pain until he leaves this life.

Verse 849 He who tries to open the eyes of those who will not see is himself Blind, for the unseeing man sees only the ways of his own mind.

Verse 850 He is deemed an earthly demon who denies as false What That which the world declares to be true.


Verse 851 It is said that hatred is the disease that spreads The plague of discord among all living creatures.

Verse 852 Though men plot disunity and deliberately harm you, The highest path is not to plan hateful retribution.

Verse 853 Removing the incurable cancer called hatred Reveals one's undying, un-diminishing radiance.

Verse 854 The destruction of hatred, that sorrow of sorrows, Yields to man the joy of joys.

Verse 855 Who is there who could conquer those Who keep themselves free of all hostilities?

Verse 856 To those who claim they take delight in hatred, Failure and life's ruin are quite near.

Verse 857 Men immersed in animosities, knowingly causing harm, Can never see that triumph comes from noble truths.

Verse 858 Wealth waxes when a man walks away from confrontation And wanes whenever he encourages it.

Verse 859 Seeing a prosperous season approach, men neglect hatred. In times of ruin, they nurture it to profusion.

Verse 860 From hatred springs all suffering, But cheerful friendship yields good fortune's joys.

Merits of Enmity

Verse 861 Rein in antagonism against the strong, But unleash animosity against weak adversaries.

Verse 862 How can the man who is unloving and who has neither powerful allies Nor the strength to stand alone overcome his mighty enemies?

Verse 863 He who is fearful, ignorant, unfriendly and uncharitable Is an easy prey to his enemies.

Verse 864 Letting go of his secrets but not his anger, A man becomes easy prey to anyone, anywhere, anytime.

Verse 865 Even one who is lacking character, conscience Piety and propriety can be delightful-to his enemies!

Verse 866 Hatred is a desirable thing when it comes from Scoundrels seized by blinding rage and addictive lust.

Verse 867 Some men undertake a task then undermine it unawares. Acquire their hatred-indeed, pay money for it.

Verse 868 If a man has no virtues and many vices, he will have no allies, And this will be an advantage to his enemies.

Verse 869 If the foe is ignorant and afraid to fight, The victor's joy cannot be far away.

Verse 870 Fame will escape the grasp of those who fail to grasp The wealth of fools who failed to learn.

Understanding the Nature of Enmity

Verse 871 One should never wish for the accursed thing Called enmity-even in jest.

Verse 872 Though you may incur the enmity of those who reap a livelihood by their Bow do not provoke the hatred of those who sow and reap with their words.

Verse 873 A solitary man who provokes hatred from many Is more of an idiot than lunatics are.

Verse 874 The world abides beneath the greatness Of noble natured rulers who befriend their enemies.

Verse 875 Finding he faces two foes with no allies, A lone man lures one to side with him.

Verse 876 When distress dawns, neither draw near nor depart from New friends and foes-rather, leave them alone.

Verse 877 Never reveal your troubles to those who cannot comprehend them, Nor expose your weaknesses to your enemies.

Verse 878 Engineer a plan, execute that plan well and ensure your security- Thus is the vanity of foes forever vanquished.

Verse 879 Chop down a thorny tree while it is young. Left to grow mature, it will cut the cutter's hand.

Verse 880 Those who fail to quell an acrimonious rival's conceits Will be blown away by the mere fact he still breathes.

Internal Enmity

Verse 881 Even shade and water are unpleasant if they breed disease. So too may relatives be unpleasant if they cause harm.

Verse 882 Do not fear the foe who is like the drawn sword, But fear the friendship of the enemy who poses as kinsman.

Verse 883 Dread hatred from within and defend against it. In calamitous times it will cut deeper than a potter's knife.

Verse 884 Hidden hatreds may lurk only in the mind, Yet they can manifest myriad miseries among kin.

Verse 885 Hate hidden in a kinsman's heart will cause More than many miseries-it will kill a man.

Verse 886 When hatred arises, dissention destroys unity, And men fall inescapably toward ever ready death.

Verse 887 A house that harbors hatred will never form a united whole though, Like a vessel and its lid, it may appear to be united.

Verse 888 As iron is worn away by frequent filing, A family's strength is eroded by inner frictions.

Verse 889 Internal dissention may be as minute as a divided sesame seed, Yet it maintains the sufficient power to destroy.

Verse 890 Living with those who cannot dwell in harmony Is like living in a hut with a cobra.

Not Offending the Great

Verse 891 The greatest way to guard oneself is to not belittle The powers of men of prowess.

Verse 892 If a man by his conduct offends the great ones, Through them he will bring on himself immeasurable miseries.

Verse 893 If you desire destruction, don't heed the rules- Simply provoke those who, if they desire, can destroy.

Verse 894 For the powerless to wreak harm upon the powerful Is to summon Death with the hand.

Verse 895 Having incurred a stalwart king's withering wrath, One is doomed, wherever he wanders, whatever he does.

Verse 896 Though burned by a fire one may survive; But there is no survival for those who offend the great.

Verse 897 Of what avail is a man's many gloried life and splendorous wealth If he incurs the wrath of great and righteous men?

Verse 898 When men of mountainous stature are meagerly esteemed, Men who seemed enduring as the earth will die, as will their kin.

Verse 899 The most kingly king will tumble from his throne midway And die, should he arouse an avowed sage's righteous wrath.

Verse 900 Though a king commands peerless powers of protection, He cannot survive the anger of sages with powers of spirit. Being Led by Women

Verse 901 Those who dote upon their wives will not achieve great success, And those of great ambition avoid that very thing.

Verse 902 The riches of a man who rashly follows a woman's ways Will buy him only shameful shame.

Verse 903 An abnormal submissiveness to his spouse Will earn a man endless disgrace among decent men.

Verse 904 Though he has mastered the doing of deeds, The henpecked husband merits little in this life or the next.

Verse 905 A man's fears of his own wife will make him Constantly fearful of offering good to good folks.

Verse 906 Though providence has filled his life, A man who fears his graceful spouse is empty of simple dignity.

Verse 907 A woman's shy ways show great dignity, Unlike a man who lives to work a woman's bidding.

Verse 908 Those who live obeying their wife's wishes Can neither satisfy the needs of friends nor benefit others.

Verse 909 Neither virtuous deeds nor vast wealth nor other accomplishments Will be found with men who carry out their wife's commands.

Verse 910 Prosperous men whose thoughts dwell in the mind Never indulge in the folly of doting on their wives.

Wanton Women

Verse 911 The sweet words of beautifully bangled women who desire A man's wealth and not his love cause his fall into disgrace.

Verse 912 Weigh the worth and abandon the company of un-virtuous women Who weigh the profit and talk of their virtues.

Verse 913 A mercenary woman pretends intimate embrace, But in the darkened room she holds a stranger's corpse.

Verse 914 Men seeking spiritual treasures are too richly wise To touch tawdry women who treasure only material riches.

Verse 915 Men of innate good sense and acquired sagacity Never touch tramps who share their shameful beauty with all.

Verse 916 Men who desire to extend their own goodness Will not embrace desirable women who extend lewd charms to all.

Verse 917 Only men devoid of a chaste mind will lie in the arms of women Whose hearts covet other things as they embrace.

Verse 918 It is said that men devoid of discerning wisdom Succumb to a deceiving damsel's embrace as to a siren's song.

Verse 919 The soft arms of the elegantly jeweled harlot Are an infernal pit wherein base, ignorant men are engulfed.

Verse 920 Two-faced females, besotting brew and addictive dice Befriend the men whom fortune has forsaken.

The Avoidance of Drunkenness

Verse 921 Those who crave intoxicating drink each day Will neither be feared nor famed.

Verse 922 Do not drink liquor. If some wish to, let it be those Who have no wish for the esteem of exemplary men.

Verse 923 The sight of the drunken man's revelry is unbearable Even to his own mother. How must it then appear to the wise?

Verse 924 The virtuous damsel called decency will turn her back On men who indulge in the grievously vile vice called drunkenness.

Verse 925 To spend one's wealth to purchase self-oblivion Is the result of being oblivious to what constitutes proper conduct.

Verse 926 Those who always sleep are akin to the dead. And those who constantly drink are like men who have taken poison.

Verse 927 The drooping eyes of those who drink secretly reveal that secret, Drawing forth their neighbor's endless ridicule.

Verse 928 Stop denying, "I never drink." For next time you drink The mind's hidden secret will be told, then and there.

Verse 929 One may as well carry a candle underwater to search For a drowned man as use reason to sober one drowned in drink.

Verse 930 Cannot the drunkard who sees while he is sober the drunken state of Another realize the shameful degradation of his own drunkenness?


Verse 931 Do not take to gambling even if you can win, Or your wins will be like the baited hook that the fish swallows.

Verse 932 To win once, a gambler loses a hundred times. Is that the way to win either happiness or prosperity?

Verse 933 Incessantly calling bets on rolling dice Causes a man's riches and revenues to run elsewhere.

Verse 934 Gambling brings on many woes and erodes a man's good name. There is nothing which ends in more wretched poverty.

Verse 935 Those enamored of the dice, the gambling hall And their lucky hand lose everything in their desire to win.

Verse 936 Gambling is misfortune's other name, and fools ensnared By her will suffer an empty stomach and a surfeit of sorrow.

Verse 937 Spending time in the gambling hall wastes Ancestral wealth and diminishes an individual's worth.

Verse 938 Gambling will consume a man's wealth and corrupt his honesty. It will end his benevolence and bring on him misery.

Verse 939 Those who take to gambling's fickle gain forfeit these five: Raiment's, riches, rations, renown and erudition.

Verse 940 The gambler's passion increases with the losses incurred. Even so does the soul's craving for life grow with the grief's suffered.


Verse 941 Disease is but deficiency or excess of three life forces Defined in learned texts as air, fire and water.

Verse 942 The body requires no medicine if you eat Only after the food you have already eaten is digested.

Verse 943 If digestion is complete, let a man eat with moderation, For that is the way to prolong the life of the body.

Verse 944 Certain the last meal has digested and sensing appetite's keen edge, Savor only foods which are fully agreeable.

Verse 945 Life remains unharmed when one eats with restraint, Refraining from foods proven disagreeable.

Verse 946 The joy of health abides in the man who eats moderately. Even so, the pain of illness dwells with him who eats excessively.

Verse 947 The thoughtless glutton who gorges himself beyond His digestive fire's limits will be consumed by limitless ills.

Verse 948 Diagnose the illness, trace its cause, Seek the proper remedy and apply it with skill.

Verse 949 An erudite doctor offers healing remedy after heeding The patient's nature, the disease's nature and the time of year.

Verse 950 Medicine consists of a patient, physician, prescription And nursemaid-each commanding four parts.

Book 2 On Wealth Part 3 The People


Verse 951 An innate sense of rights and shying away from wrong Are found together only in the nobly born.

Verse 952 Men of noble birth will never fall from three: Virtuous conduct, truthfulness, and modesty.

Verse 953 Four are the attributes of the true gentleman: a smiling face, A generous hand, a courteous disposition and kindly words.

Verse 954 Men of good birth will not do demeaning deeds Even though millions and millions may be gained thereby.

Verse 955 Time-honored families may be parted from prosperity's charitableness, But will never sever themselves from proper conduct.

Verse 956 Those committed to their family's flawless fame Dare not commit deceitful, dishonorable deeds.

Verse 957 In high-born men blemishes are clearly seen, Just as the moon's elevation makes it more visible.

Verse 958 When a man with good background lacks loving affection, Doubts arise whether he arose from that family.

Verse 959 The nature of a soil is known by the seedlings that sprout. Even so, the nature of a man's family is known by the words he speaks.

Verse 960 Those desiring greatness must desire modesty. And those seeking their family's honor must seek to be respectful to all.


Verse 961 Refrain from those actions that would degrade honor Even though they should be indispensable for the preservation of life.

Verse 962 Those who pursue glory honorably never act in-gloriously, Even if fame is assured.

Verse 963 Cultivate modesty in the midst of good fortune, But in times of adversity preserve your dignity.

Verse 964 Honorable men fallen from high position May be likened to odious hari fallen from the head.

Verse 965 Even men grand as a mountain will become small If they commit an unworthy act though as small as a mustard seed.

Verse 966 It offers neither earth's renown nor heaven's refuge, So why would one run after or even stand before a man who reviles him?

Verse 967 Better to die right where you stand, the saying goes, Than to live running after those who despise you.

Verse 968 Will any medicine save the body of the high-born man When his honor has perished?

Verse 969 Shorn of its hair, the yak will refuse to live; Such men exist, who prefer death to the loss of honor.

Verse 970 The world will extoll and exalt honorable men Who exult in death rather than dishonor.


Verse 971 Life's light is the aspiration for glorious achievement. And disgrace is the dark thought that says, "I shall live without it."

Verse 972 Birth decrees to all men who live a common circumstance. Diverse actions define their unique specialness.

Verse 973 Lowly men are never high, even when elevated. High souls are never low, even when downtrodden.

Verse 974 Even as chastity in a woman, greatness must be guarded By being true to one's own self.

Verse 975 A man possessing greatness possesses the power To perform uncommon deeds.

Verse 976 "We will befriend great men and become like them," Such thoughts rarely intrude upon small minds.

Verse 977 When small-minded men do achieve some distinction, It only serves to augment their arrogance.

Verse 978 Greatness is always humble. But pettiness is self-adorned with words of praise.

Verse 979 Greatness abides in the absence of arrogance. Smallness proudly parades its haughtiness.

Verse 980 Greatness conceals through silence the weaknesses of others. But pettiness proclaims such things to all.

Perfect Goodness

Verse 981 It is said that all good things are natural to those Who know their duty and walk the path of perfect goodness.

Verse 982 Perfect men hold as good their own good character. No other goodness is so perfectly good.

Verse 983 Love, modesty, propriety, kindly look, and truthfulness- These are the five pillars on which perfect goodness rests.

Verse 984 Penance is that goodness which refrains from killing. Perfection is that goodness which refuses to tell others' faults.

Verse 985 Humility is the strength of the strong and the weapon With which the wise conquer their foes.

Verse 986 The touchstone of one's unalloyed character Is accepting defeat from inferiors unabashedly.

Verse 987 Of what avail is perfect goodness if it does not do good Even to those who have caused pain?

Verse 988 Deprived of all else, one remains un-disgraced If endowed with strength of character.

Verse 989 Destiny's last days may surge with oceanic change, Yet men deemed perfectly good remain, like the shore, unchanged.

Verse 990 Should the perfect virtue of perfect men diminish, The robust earth would bear our burdensomeness no more.

Possession of Courtesy

Verse 991 If a man is easy of access to all, then the virtue of courtesy Will be easily accessible to him.

Verse 992 Loving kindness and birth to lofty kindred- These two confer on one a gracious manner.

Verse 993 That their limbs look alike does not render likness among human. Real similarities derive from similarly civil features.

Verse 994 The world commends the civil character of those Who combine usefulness with impartial benevolence.

Verse 995 Disparaging words pain a man even when uttered in jest. Therefore, those who know human nature are courteous even to their enemies.

Verse 996 The world goes on because civilized men exist. Without them it would collapse into mere dust.

Verse 997 Though their minds are as sharp as a rasp, Men without human decency are as wooden as a tree.

Verse 998 It is disgraceful to be discourteous, Even toward the unfriendly who treat you unjustly.

Verse 999 To those who cannot smile in joy the wide world Lies engulfed in darkness even in broad daylight.

Verse 1000 Great wealth amassed by men devoid of that virtue called courtesy Is like good milk that has soured in an unclean vessel.

Wealth That Benefits None

Verse 1001 Whoever hoards wealth, neither enjoying nor expending it, Is as lifeless as his unused heap.

Verse 1002 Believing wealth is everything, yet giving nothing, The miser will himself be possessed in a miserable birth.

Verse 1003 The mere sight of men who crave wealth's accumulation, And care nothing of renown is a burden to the earth.

Verse 1004 Unloved by even a single soul, What could such a man imagine he might leave behind.

Verse 1005 Amid accumulated millions a man remains poor If he neither gives nor enjoys his wealth.

Verse 1006 Vast wealth can be a wretched curse to one who neither Gladdens himself in its worth nor gives to the worthy.

Verse 1007 The wealth of a man who gives nothing to the needy Is like a beautiful maiden growing old unwed.

Verse 1008 The wealth of the man whom no one loves is like a poisonous tree That bears fruit in the heart of a village.

Verse 1009 Strangers will one day seize his wealth, who, To pile it high, preferred self-denial, forsaking love and dharma.

Verse 1010 The short-lived poverty of the benevolent wealthy man Is like the temporary dryness of the rain cloud.

Possession of Modesty

Verse 1011 For fair-faced maidens virtue's modesty brings bashfulness, But the deeper modesty shies away from wrongful deeds.

Verse 1012 Food, clothing and such are not much different among people, It is modesty that distinguishes good men from others.

Verse 1013 All life clings to a body, Perfect goodness clings to all that is modest.

Verse 1014 Is not modesty the jewel of the great? Without it, Is not their strut an affliction for the eye to behold?

Verse 1015 Those men who for others' disgrace and their own feel equally ashamed Are regarded by the world as the abode of modesty.

Verse 1016 The great would rather defend themselves with modesty's barricade Than breach it to acquire the vast world itself.

Verse 1017 Those who prize unpretentiousness will forsake life to preserve it. But they would never forsake modesty for the sake of life.

Verse 1018 If a man does not feel ashamed of that which others feel ashamed, Virtue itself will be ashamed of him.

Verse 1019 One's family will be consumed in the fire of failure to act well; But everything good will be incinerated by dwelling in shamelessness.


Verse 1014 The movements of men devoid of innate modesty May be likened to wooden puppets suspended on a string.

Advancing the Family

Verse 1021 There is no greater dignity than that of the man who declares, "I will never cease in laboring to advance my family."

Verse 1022 Perseverance and sound understanding- These two are what exalt a man's family.

Verse 1023 When a man declares he will advance his family, God Himself will wrap His robes and lead the way.

Verse 1024 When a man's effort to raise high his family is unremitting, His work will prosper of itself even if he makes no plans.

Verse 1025 The world will surround and wish to befriend the man Who, without wrongdoing, prospers in life to uplift loved ones.

Verse 1026 It is said that true manliness consists In becoming the head and provider for one's family.

Verse 1027 On a battlefield the burden falls upon the brave; In the family, a comparable weight is carried by the most competent.

Verse 1028 Those seeking to improve their family await no reason, For delays and undue regard for dignity will destroy it.

Verse 1029 Behold the man who shields his family from all suffering. Has not his body become a willing vessel for affliction.

Verse 1030 Without good men to hold it up, The family house will fall when misfortune descends.


Verse 1031 Wherever it may wander, the world must follow the farmer. Thus despite all its hardships, farming is the most esteemed work.

Verse 1032 Farmers are the linchpin of the world, for they support all those Who take to other work, not having the strength to plow.

Verse 1033 Those who cultivate their food live in self-sufficiency. All others follow them and subsist in self-made dependence.

Verse 1034 Those in the shade of abundant sheaves of grain Will see many nations overshadowed by their own.

Verse 1035 Those who eat food harvested with their own hands will Never beg and never refuse a beggar's outstretched palm.

Verse 1036 When those who plough the fields stand idly with folded arms, Even completely desireless ascetics will not subsist.

Verse 1037 If soil is dried so one ounce become one-quarter ounce, Abundant yields will not require a single handful of fertilizer.

Verse 1038 It's better to fertilize than to furrow a field. Having weeded, it's better to watch a field than to water it.

Verse 1039 If the lord of the land fails to visit his fields, They will sulk as surely as a neglected wife.

Verse 1040 Mother Earth laughs to herself when she sees the slothful Pleading poverty and crying, "Alas, I have nothing to eat."


Verse 1041 Ask what is more miserable than being poor And the answer comes-only poverty pains like poverty.

Verse 1042 Poverty, the cruelest of demons, deprives a man of every joy in this life as well as the next.

Verse 1043 That poison called poverty will destroy at once The honor of ancient descent and the refinement of speech.

Verse 1044 Privation produces unmindfulness which gives birth To improper words, even in men of proper birth.

Verse 1045 This one affliction called poverty Brings in its train a multitude of miseries.

Verse 1046 The poor may perceive profoundly and speak skillfully, Yet their meaningful words are always forgotten.

Verse 1047 Poverty, destitute of all virtue, estranges a man Even from the mother who bore him.

Verse 1048 Will wretched poverty which is killing me so Come again today as of yesterday?

Verse 1049 Men may slumber even in the midst of fire, But none can find repose in poverty's presence.

Verse 1050 Having become fatally impoverished, let a man fully renounce, Lest he fatally exhaust his neighbor's vinegar and salt.


Verse 1051 If you meet a man of means, you may beg his help. If he refuses, the fault is his, not yours.

Verse 1052 Even begging can prove pleasurable When what is begged for comes without a sense of burden.

Verse 1053 Begging has its own beauty if one supplicates Before dutiful men whose hearts never say no.

Verse 1054 There are men who never deny a request even in a dream. Begging from such men is as good as giving.

Verse 1055 Because men do exist on earth who never begrudge giving, Others dare to plead before men's gaze.

Verse 1056 The evils of begging will flee at the mere sight Of those who are free from the evil of refusal.

Verse 1057 There is rejoicing in a jubilant heart Upon seeing those who give without scoffing or scorning.

Verse 1058 Deprived of its beggars, this vast and verdant earth Would be reduced to a sphere for the wooden play of puppets.

Verse 1059 What glory would generous men have If there were none to beg and receive their gifts?

Verse 1060 One who begs and is refused should not be angry For his own poverty is sufficient proof.

Dread of Begging

Verse 1061 It is ten millions better not to beg, even from those Precious few who find joy in generosity and thus never refuse.

Verse 1062 Were it the world's Creator who wished men to live by begging, Men might well wish that He Himself also die a wanderer.

Verse 1063 There is no greater foolhardiness than saying to oneself, "I shall end the pains of poverty by begging."

Verse 1064 The entire world is too small to contain the dignity of men Who stoop not to beg even in the midst of destitution.

Verse 1065 Though it is only gruel thin as water, nothing is more savory Than the food that is earned by the labor of one's hands.

Verse 1066 The tongue finds nothing more distasteful than begging Even to simply plead for the cow's drinking water.

Verse 1067 This I beg of all beggars, "If beg you must, beg not from misers."

Verse 1068 The un-sturdy ship called begging will break apart The moment it crashes against the rock of refusal.

Verse 1069 Thoughts of the beggar's plight must melt one's heart, But thoughts of refusals he receives crushes it completely.

Verse 1070 Is there any place a miser can safely hide When inside him resounds the word "no" which slays beggars?


Verse 1071 Outwardly, vile men resemble human beings. Never have we witnessed such a remarkable likeness.

Verse 1072 The low-minded are happier than men who know the good, For they are never troubled by the pains of conscience.

Verse 1073 Wicked rogues resemble the gods, For they, too, live doing whatever they want.

Verse 1074 When the vile meets the wicked he will outdo him In his vices and pride himself on the achievement.

Verse 1075 Fear is the primary motive force of base men. Apart from that, the desire for gain may motivate them, but only a little.

Verse 1076 Base men are like a bass drum, For they sound off to others every secret they happen to hear.

Verse 1077 The wretched are too inhospitable to even shake the moisture from their Just-washed hands, unless the visitor can shatter their jaw with clenched fist.

Verse 1078 The worthy yield their gifts when told of the need, but, like The sugar cane, the low will yield theirs only by a deathly crushing.

Verse 1079 Let a low man see others well clothed and fed And instantly their faults assail his sight.

Verse 1080 Is there anything for which ignoble men are suited? Well, whenever crisis comes no one sells themselves more swiftly!

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